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    Author(s): Peter W. Hart; Alan W. Rudie
    Date: 2014
    Source: TAPPI JOURNAL, VOLUME 13, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 2014; pp. 23-31; 2014
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (332.27 KB)


    The application of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst has been well documented in scientific studies and mill applications. AQ is known to increase the rate of delignification, enabling a reduction in pulping time, temperature, or chemical charge and an increase in pulp yield. This review does not focus extensively on specific details of AQ use but rather on critical milestones in the AQ process lifecycle, including its initial introduction, investigation of the reaction mechanism, and evaluation of best use by the pulping industry. The importance and difficulty of an economic justification for use of AQ are discussed, including their complication by modest improvement in yield obtained using AQ and low cost of the displaced chemicals. In many mills, documenting increased net mill revenue resulting from the use of AQ has been impossible. Recent health and safety studies and regulatory decisions have put the continuing use of AQ by industry in jeopardy. Given the unknown health risks, international regulatory environment, modest improvements available using AQ, and difficulty in economically accounting for the benefits, this likely represents the final chapter in the AQ life cycle.

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Hart, Peter W.; Rudie, Alan W. 2014. Anthraquinone-A review of the rise and fall of a pulping catalyst. TAPPI JOURNAL, VOLUME 13, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 2014; pp. 23-31; 2014


    Anthraquinone, Pulping, Soda-AQ, Anthraquinone regulations

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