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    Author(s): Charles J. Mason; Kier D. Klepzig; Brian J. Kopper; Philip J. KerstenBarbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa
    Date: 2015
    Source: Journal of Chemical Ecology
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: View PDF  (281.16 KB)

    Description

    Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle -fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (Picea glauca) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of four spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)—associated fungi to three diterpene acids. Constitutive phloem contents differed between species, in that red pine had extremely low concentrations of diterpene acids, whereas white spruce had substantial constitutive levels. Induction differed quantitatively. Both red pine and white spruce exhibited marked increases, but red pine underwent greater increases and achieved higher concentrations than white spruce. Induction also differed qualitatively in that red pine showed lower diversity and fewer compositional changes during induction than white spruce. In red pine,fungal inoculation accompanying wounding elicited greater increases than wounding alone, but in white spruce total concentrations were higher following wounding alone. Spruce beetle fungal symbiont growth varied among species and compounds. Some diterpenes elicited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on fungi, depending on concentration. All four fungi exhibited higher tolerances compared to those associated with pine bark beetles in previous studies. Variation in tolerances to, and potentially metabolism of, diterpene acids by symbionts mayreflect differences in constitutive levels between spruce and pine, and partially explain differences in concentrations achieved during induction.

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    Citation

    Mason, Charles J.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Kopper, Brian J.; Kersten, Philip J.; Illman, Barbara L.; Raffa, Kenneth F. 2015. Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and Interspecific Differences in Sensitivity Among Fungal Associates. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 41(6): 524-532.

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    Keywords

    Terpenoids . Ophiostoma . Leptographium . Ips . Dendroctonus

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