Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    After decades focused on promoting economically valuable species, management of northern temperate forests has increasingly become focused on promoting tree species diversity. Unfortunately, many formerly common species that could contribute to diversity including yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.), and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) are now uncommon in the seedling layer, raising concerns about our ability to use these species to increase diversity. In this study, two related seed addition experiments conducted in 45 variably-sized harvest gaps (107-3234 m2) and four unharvested areas in Emmet County, Michigan, USA were used to investigate mechanisms potentially limiting seedling recruitment. The first experiment examined the influence of light (i.e. harvest gap size), competing vegetation, and deer browsing on seedling survival for three years in a 2 x 2 factorial, where subplots were unfenced or fenced to exclude deer, unclipped or clipped to control competing vegetation, and located across the gradient of gap sizes. The second experiment explored the influence of scarification, light, and competing vegetation on germination and subsequent survival for 2 years in a 2 x 2 factorial, in subplots that were unscarified or scarified to remove litter, unclipped or clipped to control competing vegetation, and located across the gradient of gap sizes. Eastern hemlock, paper birch, and yellow birch, all smaller-seeded species, were 12, 17, and 95 times more abundant in scarified plots compared to unscarified plots. In contrast, white pine, the largest-seeded species, was unaffected by scarification and had low overall germination. Shade tolerant hemlock and shade intolerant paper birch germinated at higher densities in lower light, smaller harvest gap environments, while both mid-tolerant species, white pine and yellow birch, were unaffected by light. Increasing light availability had a positive influence on each species' first year survival except white pine, and also improved second year survival for paper birch and eastern hemlock. Paper birch and hemlock third year survival also increased with increasing light. By the end of the third growing season, only paper birch survival was negatively impacted by competition from vegetation and no species were affected by exposure to deer browse pressure. At the conclusion of the study, large group selection gaps (24-50 m diameter) contained the highest density of each species except white pine, suggesting that large group selection gaps may provide the best opportunity for reestablishing this particular group of species in the seedling layer.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Willis, John L.; Walters, Michael B.; Gottschalk, Kurt W. 2015. Scarification and gap size have interacting effects on northern temperate seedling establishment. Forest Ecology and Management. 347: 237-247.


    Google Scholar


    Scarification, Germination, Light, Gaps, Diversity, Seedling

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page