Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Van R. Kane; Malcolm P. North; James A. Lutz; Derek J. Churchill; Susan L. Roberts; Douglas F. Smith; Robert J. McGaughey; Jonathan T. Kane; Matthew L. Brooks
    Date: 2014
    Source: Remote Sensing of Environment. 151: 89-101
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (5.17 MB)


    Mosaics of tree clumps and openings are characteristic of forests dominated by frequent, low-and moderate-severity fires. When restoring these fire-suppressed forests, managers often try to reproduce these structures to increase ecosystem resilience. We examined unburned and burned forest structures for 1937 0.81 ha sample areas in Yosemite National Park, USA. We estimated severity for fires from 1984 to 2010 using the Landsat-derived Relativized differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) and measured openings and canopy clumps in five height strata using airborne LiDAR data. Because our study area lacked concurrent field data, we identified methods to allow structural analysis using LiDAR data alone. We found three spatial structures, canopy-gap, clump-open, and open, that differed in spatial arrangement and proportion of canopy and openings. As fire severity increased, the total area in canopy decreased while the number of clumps increased, creating a patchwork of openings and multistory tree clumps. The presence of openings > 0.3 ha, an approximate minimum gap size needed to favor shade-intolerant pine regeneration, increased rapidly with loss of canopy area. The range and variation of structures for a given fire severity were specific to each forest type. Low-to moderate-severity fires best replicated the historic clump-opening patterns that were common in forests with frequent fire regimes. Our results suggest that managers consider the following goals for their forest restoration: 1) reduce total canopy cover by breaking up large contiguous areas into variable-sized tree clumps and scattered large individual trees; 2) create a range of opening sizes and shapes, including ~50% of the open area in gaps > 0.3 ha; 3) create multistory clumps in addition to single story clumps; 4) retain historic densities of large trees; and 5) vary treatments to include canopy-gap, clump-open, and open mosaics across project areas to mimic the range of patterns found for each forest type in our study.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Kane, Van R.; North, Malcolm P.; Lutz, James A.; Churchill, Derek J.; Roberts, Susan L.; Smith, Douglas F.; McGaughey, Robert J.; Kane, Jonathan T.; Brooks, Matthew L. 2014. Assessing fire effects on forest spatial structure using a fusion of Landsat and airborne LiDAR data in Yosemite National Park. Remote Sensing of Environment. 151: 89-101.


    Google Scholar


    Fire severity, Forest structure, Relativized differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR), LiDAR, Gaps, Tree clumps, Sierra Nevada, Abies concolor, Abies magnifica, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page