Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Kristopher Abell; Therese M. Poland; Allard Cosse; Leah S. Bauer
    Date: 2015
    Source: In: Van Driesche, R.G.; Reardon, R.C., eds. Biology and control of emerald ash borer. FHTET-2014-09. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team: 113-127. Chapter 7.
    Publication Series: Book Chapter
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.03 MB)


    As soon as emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB) was discovered near Detroit, Michigan, USA, in 2002, surveys were initiated to delimit the extent of the infested area. These initial delimitation surveys were based on visual assessments using external symptoms because at the time no other detection tools were available and nothing was known about EAB responses to chemical or visual stimuli. Surveys were supplemented by tracing movement of nursery stock shipped from Detroit to other locations to detect new infestations of EAB. External symptoms of EAB infestation, which include D-shaped exit holes, dieback and crown thinning, epicormic shoots, and bark splits over galleries, are not apparent until one or more years after trees are infested by which time some adult beetle emergence may have occurred, allowing dispersal to other locations (Poland and McCullough, 2006). Therefore, visual surveys that rely on detecting infested trees are not effective for discovery of low-density infestations. As of 2014, development of better detection tools for EAB remained an important need for the regulatory program.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Iannone, B.V. III , K.M. Potter , Q. Guo , A.M. Liebhold , B.C. Pijanowski ,C.M. Oswalt and S.Fei. 2015. Biological invasion hotspots: a trait-based perspective reveals new sub-continental patterns. Ecography 39: 961-969.

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page