Skip to Main Content
Drought impacts on ecosystem functions of the U.S. National Forests and Grasslands: Part I evaluation of a water and carbon balance modelAuthor(s): Shanlei Sun; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty; Erika Cohen; Jingfeng Xiao; Yang Zhang
Source: Forest Ecology and Management 353: 260-268
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Station: Southern Research Station
View PDF (1.87 MB)
DescriptionUnderstanding and quantitatively evaluating the regional impacts of climate change and variability (e.g., droughts) on forest ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield, evapotranspiration, and productivity) and services (e.g., fresh water supply and carbon sequestration) is of great importance for developing climate change adaptation strategies for National Forests and Grasslands (NFs) in the United States. However, few reliable continental-scale modeling tools are available to account for both water and carbon dynamics. The objective of this study was to test a monthly water and carbon balance model, the Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI) model, for potential application in addressing the influences of drought on NFs ecosystem services across the conterminous United States (CONUS). The performance of the WaSSI model was comprehensively assessed with measured streamflow (Q) at 72 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauging stations, and satellite-based estimates of watershed evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) for 170 National Forest and Grassland (NFs). Across the 72 USGS watersheds, the WaSSI model generally captured the spatial variability of multi-year mean annual and monthly Q and annual ET as evaluated by Correlation Coefficient (R = 0.71–1.0), Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NS = 0.31–1.00), and normalized Root Mean Squared Error (0.06–0.48). The modeled ET and GPP by WaSSI agreed well with the remote sensing-based estimates for multi-year annual and monthly means for all the NFs. However, there were systemic discrepancies in GPP between our simulations and the satellite-based estimates on a yearly and monthly scale, suggesting uncertainties in GPP estimates in all methods (i.e., remote sensing and modeling). Overall, our assessments suggested that the WaSSI model had the capability to reconstruct the long-term forest watershed water and carbon balances at a broad scale. This model evaluation study provides a foundation for model applications in understanding the impacts of climate change and variability (e.g., droughts) on NFs ecosystem service functions.
- You may send email to email@example.com to request a hard copy of this publication.
- (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationSun, Shanlei; Sun, Ge; Caldwell, Peter; McNulty, Steven G.; Cohen, Erika; Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhang, Yang. 2015. Drought impacts on ecosystem functions of the U.S. National Forests and Grasslands: Part I evaluation of a water and carbon balance model. Forest Ecology and Management. 353: 260-268. 9 p. 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.03.054
KeywordsEvapotranspiration Gross primary productivity National Forests and Grasslands Water yield Modeling
- Drought impacts on ecosystem functions of the U.S. National Forests and Grasslands: Part II assessment results and management implications
- Predicting future US water yield and ecosystem productivity by linking an ecohydrological model to WRF dynamically downscaled climate projections
- Projecting water yield and ecosystem productivity across the United States by linking an ecohydrological model to WRF dynamically downscaled climate data
XML: View XML