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    Author(s): Yu-Mei Hsu; Andrzej Bytnerowicz
    Date: 2015
    Source: In: Clair, T.A.; Percy, K.E., eds. Assessing forest health in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. WBEA Technical Report: 8-39. Chapter 2.
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.71 MB)


    NO2 and SO2 are the primary pollutants produced by industrial facilities of the Athabasca Oil sand Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada. The major emission sources are the upgrader stacks for SO2 and stacks, mine fleets and vehicles for NO2. After emitting from the sources, NO2 and SO2 undergo dilution and chemical reaction. The highest NO2 and SO2 deposition occurred in major industrial operation areas and Fort McMurray. However, concentrations of NH3 and HNO3 were also greater outside of the AOSR industrial activities, mainly in its southern part. Ammonia increased levels were possibly also caused by forest fires and agricultural activities in central Alberta. Nitric acid, as the secondary pollutant produced via photochemical reactions, was found at distances from the main NOx emission sources both in the northern and southern directions. Consequently, deposition of these pollutants as well as deposition of total gaseous inorganic N was also greater in those areas. The NH4+ deposition calculated from the passive sampler data with the multi-layer model (MLM) and determined with the IER (ion exchange resins) open/throughfall sampling had similar patterns at all sampling sites. The NO3- deposition results from two methods were similar. However, SO2 dry deposition calculated with the MLM was much lower than that from the IER sampling. Further study is needed to reduce uncertainty for SO2 dry deposition estimation.

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    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej. 2015. Air pollution and dry deposition of nitrogen and sulphur in the AOSR estimated using passive samplers. In: Clair, T.A.; Percy, K.E., eds. Assessing forest health in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. WBEA Technical Report: 8-39. Chapter 2.

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