Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Lihu Cui; Ying Ouyang; Weizhi Yang; Zhujian Huang; Qiaoling Xu; Guangwei Yu
    Date: 2015
    Source: Journal of Environmental Management, 153:33-39
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (871.94 KB)


    Three new baffle flow constructed wetlands (CWs), namely the baffle horizontal flow CW (Z1), baffle vertical flow CW (Z2) and baffle hybrid flow CW (Z3), along with one traditional horizontal subsurface flow CW (Z4) were designed to test the removal efficiency of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the septic tank effluent under varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs). Results showed that the optimal HRT was two days for maximal removal of N and P from the septic tank effluent among the four CWs. At this HRT, the Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 CWs removed, respectively, 49.93, 58.50, 46.01 and 44.44% of TN as well as 87.82, 93.23, 95.97 and 91.30% of TP. Our study further revealed that the Z3 CW was the best design for overall removal of N and P from the septic tank effluent due to its hybrid flow directions with better oxygen supply inside the CW system.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Cui, Lihu; Ouyang,Ying; Yang, Weizhi; Huang,Zhujian; Xu, Qiaoling; Yu, Guangwei. 2015. Removal of nutrients from septic tank effluent with baffle subsurface-flow constructed wetlands. Journal of Environmental Management, 153:33-39. 7 p.


    Google Scholar


    Constructed wetland, Baffle flow, Nutrient removal, Septic tank effluent

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page