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    Author(s): Ming-Li Zhang; Jian-Feng Huang; Stewart C. Sanderson; Ping Yan; Yu-H Wu; Bo-Rong Pan
    Date: 2015
    Source: BioMed Research International. 2015: Article ID 864804.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (494.32 KB)


    Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and EastAsia-North America disjunction,with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F sequence data; biogeographical approaches included BEASTmolecular dating and Bayesian dispersal and vicariance analysis (S-DIVA).The results indicate that the core genistoides most likely originated in Africa during the Eocene to Oligocene, ca. 55-30Ma, and dispersed eastward to Central Asia at ca. 33.47Ma. The origin of Thermopsideae is inferred as Central Asian and dated to ca. 28.81Ma. Ammopiptanthus is revealed to be a relic. Birth of the ancestor ofThermopsideae coincided with shrinkage of the Paratethys Sea at ca. 30Ma in the Oligocene. The Himalayan motion of QTP uplift of ca. 20Ma most likely drove the diversification between Central Asia and North America. Divergences in East Asia, Central Asia, the Mediterranean, and so forth, within Eurasia, except for Ammopiptanthus, are shown to be dispersals from the QTP. The onset of adaptive radiation at the center of the tribe, with diversification of most species in Thermopsis and Piptanthus at ca. 4-0.85Ma in Tibet and adjacent regions, seems to have resulted from intense northern QTP uplift during the latter Miocene to Pleistocene.

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    Zhang, Ming-Li; Huang, Jian-Feng; Sanderson, Stewart C.; Yan, Ping; Wu, Yu-H; Pan, Bo-Rong. 2015. Molecular biogeography of tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae): A Madrean-Tethyan disjunction pattern with an African origin of core genistoides. BioMed Research International. 2015: Article ID 864804.


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    Thermopsideae, Leguminosae, biogeographical distribution patterns, Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP)

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