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    Author(s): Yao Chen; Charles R. FrihartZhiyong CaiLinda F. LorenzNicole M. Stark
    Date: 2013
    Source: In: International Conference on Wood Adhesives, 2013; pp. 601-610.
    Publication Series: Full Proceedings
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: View PDF  (374.66 KB)


    To investigate the potential for using purified CO2-precipitated Kraft lignin (PCO2KL) with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) for application as an adhesive in plywood production, two lignin replacement procedures were examined to assess lignin’s effect on bond quality. Methylolation and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were carried out to try to increase lignin reactivity. The first procedure involved substitution of 30% of the PF resin solids in the adhesive mix with a solution of methylolated lignin with or without prior oxidation; the second replacement procedure involved direct condensation of lignin or oxidized lignin to replace 25% of phenol. Formulated adhesives were compared to a control phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesive prepared in the laboratory. The physical properties (solid content, viscosity and pH values) of formulated resins were determined. PCO2KL-based adhesives showed comparatively good plywood shear strengths. However, they had lower wood failures than those of test samples made from PF resin only.

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    Chen, Yao; Frihart, Charles R.; Cai, Zhiyong; Lorenz, Linda F.; Stark, Nicole M. 2013. Lignin-based Phenol-Formalehyde Resins from Purified CO2 Precipitated Kraft Lignin (PCO2KL). In: International Conference on Wood Adhesives, 2013; pp. 601-610.


    Kraft lignin, lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin, hydrogen peroxide, methylolation, physical properties, shear strength, wood failure

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