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    In a recent TREE article [1], we identified three categories of unintended indirect effects that can arise from host-specific biological control agents: (i) ecological replacement; (ii) compensatory responses; and (iii) food-web interactions. Although our review focused on the biocontrol of plant pests, we suggested these concepts also apply to the biocontrol of invertebrate pests. Thomas et al. [2] argue that our treatment of ecological replacement was unjustified and that indirect effects owing to compensatory responses and food-web subsidies do not apply to biocontrol of invertebrate pests.

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    Pearson, Dean E.; Callaway, Ragan M. 2004. Response to Thomas et al.: Biocontrol and indirect effects. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 19(2): 62-63.


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    biological control agents, pests

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