Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Comparison of Nondestructive Testing Methods for Evaluating No. 2 Southern Pine Lumber: Part A, Modulus of Elasticity


B.Z. Yang
R.D. Seale
R. Shmulsky
J. Dahlen



Publication type:

Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Primary Station(s):

Forest Products Laboratory


Wood and Fiber Science, Volume 47, Number 4, 2015; pp. 375-384.


Modulus of elasticity (MOE, or E) is one of the main quality indicators in structural lumber stress grading systems. Due to a relatively high amount of variability in contemporary sawn lumber, it is important that nondestructive evaluation technology be utilized to better discern high-E-value pieces from low-E-value pieces. The research described in this study is from a laboratory test of three nondestructive technologies applied to 343 pieces of visually graded No. 2 southern pine lumber collected across the southeast region of the United States. The evaluated technologies included continuous lumber test in continuous proof bending (Metriguard Model 7200 High Capacity Lumber Tester), transverse vibration (Metriguard E-Computer), and two stress wave tools (Falcon A-Grader and Carter Holt Harvey Director HM200). For each of the nondestructive techniques, results were compared with static E as determined by the four-point static bending tests following ASTM D198-14. In all cases, the nondestructive techniques successfully predicted E for all lumber sizes, with linear regression r2 values ranging from 0.77 to 0.86.


Yang, B.Z.; Seale, R.D.; Shmulsky, R.; Dahlen, J.; Wang, X. 2015. Comparison of nondestructive testing methods for evaluating No. 2 Southern pine lumber: Part A, modulus of elasticity. Wood and Fiber Science. 47(4): 375-384.

Publication Notes

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.