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    Trout, salmon, grayling and whitefishes (Salmonidae) are among the most ecologically and economically important fishes. They also are among the most vulnerable to global warming, and increasing drought, floods, and wildfires. In North America, salmonids occur from central Mexico northward along coastal regions and mountainous interiors to the Arctic Plains. A variety of existing stressors have reduced population sizes and extent and fragmented habitats, making salmonid populations increasingly vulnerable to climate-driven disturbances. This contribution explores specific threats posed by climate change and suggests actions that can help these coldwater-dependent species adapt to an increasingly warm and uncertain future.

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    Williams, J. E.; Isaak, D. J.; Imhof, J.; Hendrickson, D. A.; McMillan, J. R. 2015. Cold-water fishes and climate change in North America. Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.09505-1.


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    climate change, cumulative impacts, disturbances, drought, fish conservation, floods, global warming, ocean acidification, salmon, stream restoration, trout, wildfire

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