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Life-history strategies of North American elk: trade-offs associated with reproduction and survivalAuthor(s): Sabrina Morano; Kelley M. Stewart; James S. Sedinger; Christopher A. Nicolai; Marty Vavra
Source: Journal of Mammalogy
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
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DescriptionThe principle of energy allocation states that individuals should attempt to maximize fitness by allocating resources optimally among growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Such allocation may result in trade-offs between survival and reproduction, or between current and future reproduction. We used a marked population of North American elk (Cervus elaphus) to determine how energetic costs of reproduction in the current year affect survival and reproduction in the subsequent year. Using a multistate mark-recapture model we examined the influence of individual and environmental variation on trade-offs between these 2 life-history traits. We observed no difference in survival probabilities between pregnant and nonpregnant individuals or as a function of recruiting an offspring. Nonetheless, there was a negative effect of recruiting an offspring in the current year on becoming pregnant the following year. Increased body condition, and higher precipitation, contributed to greater probabilities of becoming pregnant in a particular year regardless of reproductive state and previous recruitment. Costs associated with reproduction led to a reduced probability of future reproduction rather than a reduction in survival. These findings are consistent with risk-sensitive reproductive allocation, where adult survival is maintained through variation in reproductive effort resulting in high and stable adult survival and more-variable reproduction.
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CitationMorano, Sabrina; Stewart, Kelley M.; Sedinger, James S.; Nicolai, Christopher A.; Vavra, Martin. 2013. Life-history strategies of North American elk: trade-offs associated with reproduction and survival. Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 94(1): 11 pages.: 162-172.
KeywordsCervus elaphus, fitness, life-history strategy, multistate mark-recapture technique, recruitment, reproductive costs, resource allocation, risk-sensitivity, transition, probability, ungulates.
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