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    Seasonal patterns of flowering and fruiting were studìed over an 18-vear period in an upland (terra firme) primary forest area near Trombetas, Pará ìn centrai Amazonìa. The study included 160 common tree taxa. While a number of specìes produced flowers and fruits during all months, distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Flowerìng peaks usually occurred during the early months of the dry season (July-October). Fluctuatìons in the proportion of fruìting species closely followed seasonal raìnfall trends for zoochoric taxa, while fruiting in the less abundant (50 of 160 species) anemochorìc taxa generally peaked durìng the dry season (August-December). Signìfìcant year-to-year variations in phenological behavior were observed for many specìes. Phenomena such as synchronozed (mass) flowering, relay flowering and monocarpic behavìor, as well as observatìons on leaf phenology, are discussed. A calendar of flowering and fruìting perìods, and data on seed morphology and dispersal vectors are presented for 230 taxa of prìmary and secondary forest trees and shrubs of the region.

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    Knowles, Oliver H.; Parrotta, John A. 1997. Phenological observations and tree seed characteristics in an equatorial moist forest at Trombetas, Pará State, Brazil. In: Lieth, Helmut and Schwartz, M.D. (eds.) Progress in Biometeorology, vol. 12: Phenology in Seasonal Climates I. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands. pp. 67-84.


    Tropical forest, Amazon, Brazil, terra firme, tree phenology, flowering, fruiting, seed characteristics, long-term studies

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