Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Edward H. Holsten; Warren Webb; Patrick J. Shea; Richard A. Werner
    Date: 2002
    Source: Res. Pap. PNW-RP-544. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 21 p
    Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: View PDF  (1.71 MB)


    Devices releasing antiaggregation pheromones, such as MCH (3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one) and verbenone (4-methylene-6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)hept-2-ene), are used experimentally to manipulate destructive populations of bark beetles. Two slow release devices, bubble caps attached to boles of trees and granular beads placed on the ground, were tested in forests of California, Oregon, and Alaska to determine their release rates. The hypothesis was that ambient air and soil temperatures were major determinants in the release rates of the releaser devices. Release rates of both bubble caps and beads differed greatly. The fastest rate was for bubble caps at a warm, California pine (Pinus spp.) site where it was 15 times faster than the rate at a cool Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr.) site in Alaska. Beads released MCH quickly and were rendered ineffective in less than 2 weeks. Little or no release occurred thereafter, regardless of the amount of pheromone remaining in the bead, or litter layer temperature. Release rates determined under field conditions are useful for the field entomologist and are vital to the development of models for semiochemical dispersion.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Holsten, Edward H.; Webb, Warren; Shea, Patrick J.; Werner, Richard A. 2002. Release rates of methylcyclohexenone and verbenone from bubble cap and bead releasers under field conditions suitable for the management of bark beetles in California, Oregon, and Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-544. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 21 p


    Google Scholar


    Semiochemicals, release rates, antiaggregation pheromones, bark beetles, temperature, MCH, verbenone

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page