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    Author(s): Marek Metslaid; Kalev Jogiste; Eero Nikinma; W. Keith Moser; Albert Porcar-Castell
    Date: 2007
    Source: Forest Ecology and Management. 250: 56-63.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (642.0 KB)


    Modern forestry has been evolving towards multiple-use of forests and maintenance of biodiversity. Interest in integrating natural forest dynamics into management planning and silvicultural practices has increased as a result of concerns related to biodiversity values and maintaining ecological functions in managed forests. Taking advantage of naturally formed advance regeneration to create a new forest is one way of emulating natural forest dynamics, especially in spruce forests. However, efficient use of advance regeneration requires knowledge about factors influencing their performance. Light is important for growth and for crown, shoot and needle morphology of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Crown morphology varies from a conical and deep crown form in relatively high-light environments to the typical "umbrella” form in the understorey shade. Shoots and needles developed in shade are flatter and experience less self-shading than those developed in more light. Needle orientation is horizontal in shade and more vertically inclined in light. The number of nodal and internodal branches increases with increasing light. Tree shoot characteristics are strongly correlated and highly dependent on growing conditions, particularly light. There is a correlation between shoot and needle mass and other shoot variables of current and consecutive year’s growth. The strongest correlations are between length of the shoot and needle mass of the shoot, and the length of the shoot and number of needles on the shoot. Needle length was not as sensitive to the light environment. However, needle width and thickness increased with canopy openness. This paper presents a review of selected literature on the relationships between different tree variables and ecophysiological factors that influence the response and acclimation of Norway spruce advance regeneration to release. The results indicate that crown, shoot and needle characteristics could reflect the acclimation to light conditions and indicate the performance of advance regeneration after release.

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    Metslaid, Marek; Jogiste, Kalev; Nikinma, Eero; Moser, W. Keith; Porcar-Castell, Albert. 2007. Tree variables related to growth response and acclimation of advance regeneration of Norway spruce and other coniferous species after release. Forest Ecology and Management. 250: 56-63.


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    acclimation, advance regeneration, conifers, morphological characteristics, Norway spruce, release

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