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    These reference ecosystems and historic range of variability may be hard to define or determine, but accepted methods can include cultural evidence such as written descriptions, oral histories, maps and photographs, and survey records (Egan and Howell 2001). Another tactic is to focus on restoring species composition (such as returning the American chestnut) and ecological processes (such as prescribed fire).

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    Thomas-Van Gundy, Melissa; Whetsell, Robert. 2016. Realistic restoration targets. Journal of the American Chestnut Foundation. 2(30): 28-29.

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