Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Benliang Zhao; Jia-en Zhang; Wenbin Yan; Xiaowu Kang; Chaogang Cheng; Ying Ouyang
    Date: 2016
    Source: Desalination and Water Treatment
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (2.0 MB)


    Golden apple snail (GAS) is one of the 100 worst invasive alien species. With the application of molluscicides to kill and control the spreading of these snails, a large amount of dead GAS shells are remained in many farms. This study ascertained the characteristics and removal of cadmium (Cd) by the GAS shell (GASS) powders and the associate mechanisms. Results showed that when the concentration of shell powder increased from 0.05 to 10.00 g/L, pH from 1.5 to 5.5, contact time from 2 to 100 min, and temperature from 10 to 50°C, the Cd removal efficiency from the solution increased gradually and reached an equilibrium condition. The Cd removal efficiency decreased as the initial Cd concentration increased from 5 to 500 mg/L. The changes in the amount of Cd removal conformed to the Langmuir model with a capacity of 81.301 mg/g. A thermodynamic analysis indicated that the Cd removal by the GASS powder was an endothermic and spontaneous process. Our study also revealed that the solution pH was affected greatly by the amount of GASS powder. The powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the CdCO3 precipitated on the surface of GAS shells. The Cd removal was related to the ion exchange and the micro-precipitation with a depletion of aragonite and calcite. This study suggests that shells of GAS could be used as an effective biomaterial for Cd removal from contaminated water.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Zhao, Benliang; Zhang, Jia-en; Yan, Wenbin; Kang, Xiaowu; Cheng, Chaogang; Ouyang, Ying. 2016. Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using waste shells of golden apple snail. Desalination and Water Treatment: 17 pages.: 1-17.  10.1080/19443994.2016.1140078


    Google Scholar


    Cadmium removal, Precipitation, Golden apple snail shell, Waste water, Sorption isotherm

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page