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    Low-level jets (LLJs) are frequent weather phenomena in many regions of North America and have profound impacts on precipitation and wind energy. We used a 31 year (1979-2010) three-hourly reanalysis data set to examine the teleconnection between southerly LLJ activity in North America and the two dominant patterns of the equatorial Pacific Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies characterized by El Niño and El Niño Modoki. We show that El Niño and El Niño Modoki exert different effects on the jet activities, and the results vary by region and by season. Overall, El Niño Modoki affects jet activity all year round, but El Niño's influence is limited mostly to the cold season (October-March). El Niño Modoki induces larger changes in jet frequency, but El Niño's influence extends to larger regions. A better understanding of this teleconnection can be used to improve seasonal predictions of precipitation and wind energy resources in regions of North America.

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    Yu, Lejiang; Zhong, Shiyuan; Heilman, Warren E.; Bian, Xindi. 2016. The effect of two types of El Niño on the southerly low-level jets in North America. Earth and Space Science. 3. 12 p.


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    low-level jet, ENSO, teleconnection, interannual variability, ocean-atmosphere interaction, Air/sea constituent fluxes, GLOBAL Climate variability, Oceans, Climate dynamics, Boundary layer processes, Climate change and variability, Climatology, Ocean/atmosphere interactions, Climate and interannual variability, Atmospheric, Decadal ocean variability, Air/sea interactions, Volcano/climate interactions

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