Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Research has shown there is a positive relationship between urban greenness and the well-being of cityresidents. But greenness is often unevenly distributed across a city, raising environmental justice issues.In 2011 and 2012 the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program installed ground plotsin the urbanized areas of Oregon and Washington. We analyze these data for the urban areas west of theCascade Mountains, linking it with demographic data from the U.S. Census to examine the relationshipbetween greenness and socioeconomic status at a sub-regional scale. To explore some relations betweenurban forest measures and socioeconomic conditions and measures we developed four models: presenceof tree canopy cover with a logistic mixed model, and on a subset of the data, percent tree canopy coverwith a linear mixed model and tree count and tree species count with Poisson mixed models. We foundthat median household income, house value, land use, and years in the Tree City USA program contributedto explaining measures of greenness, such as canopy cover presence, percent canopy cover, tree counts,and tree species counts. This agrees with other studies, but does so at a broad scale covering the mostdensely populated areas in the Pacific Northwest.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Mills, John R.; Cunningham, Patrick; Donovan, Geoffrey H. 2016. Urban forests and social inequality in the Pacific Northwest. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening.16: 188-196.


    Google Scholar


    Census demographics, forest inventory and analysis, greenness, mixed models, urban canopy cover

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page