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    Author(s): Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. HarveyJason L. White
    Date: 2014
    Source: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 71(8): 1270-1278
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (549.0 KB)


    Modeling and management of facultative anadromous salmonids is complicated by their ability to select anadromous or resident life histories. Conventional theory for this behavior assumes individuals select the strategy offering highest expected reproductive success but does not predict how population-level consequences such as a stream’s smolt production emerge from the anadromy decision and habitat conditions. Our individual-based population model represents juvenile growth, survival, and anadromy decisions as outcomes of habitat and competition. In simulation experiments that varied stream growth and survival conditions, we examined how many simulated juveniles selected anadromy versus residence and how many of those choosing anadromy survived until smolting. Owing to variation in habitat and among individuals, the within-population frequency of anadromy changed gradually with growth and survival conditions instead of switching abruptly. Higher predation risk caused more juveniles to select anadromy, but fewer survived long enough to smolt. Improving growth appears a much safer way to increase smolt production compared with reducing freshwater survival. Smolt production peaked at high growth and moderately high survival, conditions that also produced many residents.

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    Railsback, Steven F.; Harvey, Bret C.; White, Jason L. 2014. Facultative anadromy in salmonids: linking habitat, individual life history decisions, and population-level consequences. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 71(8): 1270-1278.


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    fish, salmonids, regulated rivers, individual-based modeling, facultative anadromy, partial migration, life history

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