Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Surface esterification methods of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using acid anhydrides, acid chlorides, acid catalyzed carboxylic acids, and 101-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) activated carboxylic acids were evaluated with acetyl-, hexanoyl-, dodecanoyl-, oleoyl-, and methacryloyl-functionalization. Their grafting efficiency was investigated using Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy and 13C solid state NMR spectroscopy. Acid anhydride and CDI were found to be the most applicable reagents to graft short and long chain aliphatic carbons, respectively. The preservation of structural morphology and crystallinity of grafted CNCs were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydrophobicity of grafted CNCs was evaluated by dispersing them in organic solvents with different Hansen’s solubility parameters. The dispersibility of grafted CNCs in organic solvents was improved by using never-dried CNCs as source materials and keep CNCs wet in their washing solvents after grafting, thus increasing the solvency range to disperse CNCs.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Peng, Shane X.; Chang, Huibin; Kumar, Satish; Moon, Robert J.; Youngblood, Jeffrey P. 2016. A comparative guide to controlled hydrophobization of cellulose nanocrystals via surface esterification. Cellulose. 23(3): 1825-1846.


    Google Scholar


    Cellulose nanocrystals, Esterification, Hydrophobicity, Hansen’s solubility parameters, Dispersibility

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page