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    Description

    Surface esterification methods of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using acid anhydrides, acid chlorides, acid catalyzed carboxylic acids, and 101-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) activated carboxylic acids were evaluated with acetyl-, hexanoyl-, dodecanoyl-, oleoyl-, and methacryloyl-functionalization. Their grafting efficiency was investigated using Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy and 13C solid state NMR spectroscopy. Acid anhydride and CDI were found to be the most applicable reagents to graft short and long chain aliphatic carbons, respectively. The preservation of structural morphology and crystallinity of grafted CNCs were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydrophobicity of grafted CNCs was evaluated by dispersing them in organic solvents with different Hansen’s solubility parameters. The dispersibility of grafted CNCs in organic solvents was improved by using never-dried CNCs as source materials and keep CNCs wet in their washing solvents after grafting, thus increasing the solvency range to disperse CNCs.

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    Citation

    Peng, Shane X.; Chang, Huibin; Kumar, Satish; Moon, Robert J.; Youngblood, Jeffrey P. 2016. A comparative guide to controlled hydrophobization of cellulose nanocrystals via surface esterification. Cellulose. 23(3): 1825-1846.

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    Keywords

    Cellulose nanocrystals, Esterification, Hydrophobicity, Hansen’s solubility parameters, Dispersibility

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/52579