Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation modeling. We used spatially explicit, individual-based simulation modeling to quantify the effects of habitat area, fragmentation and the contrast in resistance between habitat and non-habitat on the apparent strength and statistical detectability of landscape genetic relationships. We found that landscape genetic effects are often not detectable when habitat is highly connected. In such situations landscape structure does not limit gene flow. We also found that contrast in resistance values between habitat and non-habitat interacts with habitat extensiveness and fragmentation to affect detectability of landscape genetic relationships. Thus, the influence of landscape features critical to providing connectivity may not be detectable if gene flow is not limited by spatial patterns or resistance contrast of these features. We developed regression equations that reliably predict whether or not isolation by resistance will be detected independently of isolation by distance as a function of habitat fragmentation and contrast in resistance between habitat and non-habitat.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Cushman, Samuel A.; Shirk, Andrew J.; Landguth, Erin L. 2013. Landscape genetics and limiting factors. Conservation Genetics. 14: 263-274.


    Google Scholar


    landscape genetics, limiting factors, CDPOP, fragmentation thresholds, simulation modeling

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page