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    Effective implementation of the "multiple path" approach to managing green landscapes depends fundamentally on rigorous quantification of the composition and structure of the landscapes of concern at present, modelling landscape structure trajectories under alternative management paths, and monitoring landscape structure into the future to confirm whether management is having the expected effects on landscape structure. Indeed, quantification of current conditions, anticipation of future changes and monitoring these changes as they occur are the three foundational elements of adaptive management and the key foundation for the multiple path approach to landscape design.

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    Cushman, Samuel A.; McGarigal, Kevin. 2008. Landscape metrics, scales of resolution. In: von Gadow, Klaus; Pukkala, Timo, eds. Designing Green Landscapes. Springer Netherlands. p. 33-51.


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    green landscapes, landscape modeling, scale

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