Skip to Main Content
Simultaneous bond degradation and bond formation during phenol-formaldehyde curing with woodAuthor(s): Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph
Source: WTCE 2016, World Conference on Timber Engineering; August 22-25; 2016, Vienna, Austria.
Publication Series: Paper (invited, offered, keynote)
Station: Forest Products Laboratory
PDF: View PDF (1.0 MB)
DescriptionBonding of wood using phenol–formaldehyde adhesive develops highly durable bonds. Phenol– formaldehyde is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin). However, it is unclear how this adhesive interacts and bonds to lignin. Through wood solubilisation methodologies, earlywood and latewood bonded assemblies were characterized using two-dimensional 1H–13C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy so that chemical modification of the wood cell wall polymers, after phenol–formaldehyde resol curing, could be elucidated. The results showed a marked depletion in native lignin and polysaccharide linkages via alkaline hydrolysis. What was also found was formation of methylene bridges between phenol–formaldehyde moieties and lignin, suggesting that bond degradation and bond formation occur at the same time during PF curing with wood.
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationYelle, Daniel J.; Ralph, John. 2016. Simultaneous bond degradation and bond formation during phenol-formaldehyde curing with wood. In: WTCE 2016, World Conference on Timber Engineering; 22-25 August . Vienna, Austria. 7 pp.
KeywordsPhenol–formaldehyde, wood cell wall, lignin, curing mechanism, nuclear magnetic resonance
- Characterizing phenolformaldehyde adhesive cure chemistry within the wood cell wall
- Elucidating How Wood Adhesives Bond to Wood Cell Walls using High-Resolution Solution-State NMR Spectroscopy
- Phenol-formaldehyde reactivity with lignin in the wood cell wall
XML: View XML