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    Description

    The woody stems of trees perceive gravity to determine their orientation, and can produce reaction woods to reinforce or change their position. Together, graviperception and reaction woods play fundamental roles in tree architecture, posture control, and reorientation of stems displaced by wind or other environmental forces. Angiosperms and gymnosperms have evolved strikingly different types of reaction wood. Tension wood of angiosperms creates strong tensile force to pull stems upward, while compression wood of gymnosperms creates compressive force to push stems upward. In this review, the general features and evolution of tension wood and compression wood are presented, along with descriptions of how gravitropisms and reaction woods contribute to the survival and morphology of trees. An overview is presented of the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying graviperception, initial graviresponse and the regulation of tension wood development in the model angiosperm, Populus. Critical research questions and new approaches are discussed.

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    Citation

    Groover, Andrew. 2016. Gravitropisms and reaction woods of forest trees - evolution, functions and mechanisms. New Phytologist. 211(3): 790-802.

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    Keywords

    Wood development, genomics, tension wood, compression wood, bioenergy

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/52966