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    Author(s): Bradley R. Collins; Jennifer L. Parke; Barb Lachenbruch; Everett M. Hansen
    Date: 2009
    Source: Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 39(9): 1766-1776
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (631.0 KB)


    Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. and Arn.) Rehder) is highly susceptible to sudden oak death, a disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora ramorum Werres, De Cock & Man in’t Veld. Symptoms include a dying crown, bleeding cankers, and, eventually, death of infected trees. The cause of mortality is not well understood, but recent research indicates that water transport is reduced in infected trees. One possible mechanism causing the reduction in hydraulic conductivity is the presence of tyloses in xylem vessels. The development of tyloses was studied in relation to hydraulic conductivity in P. ramorum-infected sapwood. Inoculated logs showed a greater abundance of tyloses than noninoculated logs after 4 weeks. Inoculated trees with xylem infections had significantly more tyloses than noninoculated trees. In addition, the increase in number of tyloses was associated with a decrease in specific conductivity, suggesting that tyloses induced by infection with P. ramorum may interfere with stem sap flow. Over time, tylosis development increased in tissues farther from the inoculation site, in advance of the vertical spread of infection. The results suggest that infected sapwood contains numerous tyloses, which could significantly impede stem water transport.

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    Collins, Bradley R.; Parke, Jennifer L.; Lachenbruch, Barb; Hansen, Everett M. 2009. The effects of Phytophthora ramorum infection on hydraulic conductivity and tylosis formation in tanoak sapwood. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 39(9): 1766-1776.


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