Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Surface coatings of melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resins (MUFs) containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) have been shown to significantly improve the fire retardancy of wood by prolonging the ignition time and reducing the heat release rate, total heat released, and mass loss rate. Dual protection of wood against both decay and fire has been proposed for remedial situations and interior construction. In this study, the fire retardant MUF resin type 3 (MUF3)/APP mixture system showed strong activity against wood decay fungi via an activity inhibition test. Two species of wood were subjected steeping with the fire retardants MUF3/APP. The treatments were evaluated for fire and decay resistance using cone calorimetry and fungal decay resistance tests. The results showed that MUF3/APP surface treatment can provide dual protection to wood against degradation by decay fungi and fire.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Ma, Xing-xia; Kirker, Grant T.; Jiang, Ming-liang; Wu, Yu-zhang. 2016. Dual protection of wood surface treated with melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resin mixed with ammonium polyphosphate against both fire and decay. Forest Products Journal. 66(5/6): 280–283.


    Wood decay, fire retardants, wood durability, accelerated decay tests

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page