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    Author(s): Nicole M. Stark
    Date: 2016
    Source: J. Renew. Mater. 4(5): 313-326
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (200.0 KB)


    Performance requirements for packaging films may include barrier properties, transparency, flexibility, and tensile strength. Conventional packaging materials such as plastic films and laminates, are typically made from petroleum-based polymers. Currently, there is a drive to develop sustainable packaging materials. These alternative materials must be able to be manufactured economically and on a commercial scale, exhibit barrier properties and transparency, and provide adequate mechanical performance. As a biobased, renewable material, cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) are ideally suited to be used in sustainable packaging applications. CNs include cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and each can provide benefit to packaging films. Manufactured CNF films can be used as packaging films or laminates and have been shown to have good strength properties and good barrier properties, particularly at low humidity. Both CNCs and CNFs can be added to other polymers to improve strength and barrier properties. The flexibility of CNs to be used in a variety of ways in packaging applications has resulted in considerable attention and research activity. This article summarizes the current applicability for CNs in packaging films and discusses the future trends and opportunities for these materials.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Stark, Nicole M. 2016. Opportunities for cellulose nanomaterials in packaging films: a review and future trends. Journal of Renewable Materials. 4(5): 313-326.


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    cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), cellulose nanomaterials, packaging, films, composites, mechanical properties, barrier properties, water vapor transmission rate, oxygen transmission rate, modification

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