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    As a hardwood tree develops, surface defects such as wounds and branch stubs are overgrown or encapsulated into the tree. Evidence of such a defect remains present on the tree for decades, or for the life of the tree, in the form of bumps and changes in bark pattern. During this process, the appearance of the defect on the tree changes. The defect becomes flatter, the bark texture changes, and its dimensions change. This progressive change in appearance is predictable, permitting the size and location of the internal defect to be reliably estimated. Thus, the shape and size of the external defect indicator provide clues as to the type, shape, and size of the internal defect. Using log and defect data collected from six sites and four common Appalachian hardwood species—red oak, white oak, yellow-poplar, and sugar maple—a series of multiple linear regression models were developed to examine the internal–external defect relationship. The series of equations developed to predict attributes of the internal defect are presented.

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    Thomas, Edward. 2016. Equations for predicting internal log defect measurements of common Appalachian hardwoods. USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, FPL-RP-687. 16 p.


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    Appalachian, hardwood, log, defects

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