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    Reforestation of mined land in the Appalachians realizes many important benefits and provides important ecosystem services. Because much of the reclaimed mine lands in Appalachia were previously in forest, reclaiming these drastically disturbed areas to forests is desirable, feasible and cost-effective. The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) provides a five-step procedure to achieve successful mine land reforestation (Burger et al. 2005, Zipper et al. 2011). Because high tree species diversity is a hallmark of the Appalachian forest, one of the steps of the FRA is to reforest the site with a variety of native tree species so that the resulting stand is diverse and sustainable. Our research has demonstrated that a variety of Appalachian hardwood species do well on reclaimed mine sites, but some species do not survive well, or do not tolerate the extreme conditions on newly reclaimed mine sites.

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    Adams, M.B.; Angel, P.; Barton, C.; Slavicek, J. 2015. American elm in mine land reforestation. Reclamation Matters. Fall: 34-38.

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