Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    The wide range of stand and age-cohort structures in these old-growth P. resinosa stands depicts pre-settlement forests more complex than those of the single-cohort, post-stand-replacing-fire model that has guided regional forest management. Within-stand patchiness of cohort age structures implies disturbances operating at scales smaller than typically associated with this regional forest type. Presence of non-pine 'ingrowth' on all sites might suggest that P. resinosa stands supporting these species liewithin the natural range of variability for this community type, representing situations in which surface fires did not occur for extended periods or were spatially patchy at the stand scale. The diversity of reference conditions documented here suggests targets that might guide ecological restoration prescriptions for these ecosystems, with the goal of reintroducing structural and compositional complexity reflecting natural disturbance and stand development.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Fraver, Shawn; Palik, Brian J. 2012. Stand and cohort structures of old-growth Pinus resinosa-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science. 23: 249-259.


    Google Scholar


    Coarse woody debris, Dendrochronology, Forest disturbance, Red pine, Reference conditions, Stand dynamics, White pine, Wildfire

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page