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    Author(s): Nadir Erbilgin; Jack D. Stein; Robert E. Acciavatti; Nancy E. Gillette; Sylvia R. Mori; Kristi Bischel; Jonathan A. Cale; Carline R. Carvalho; David L. Wood
    Date: 2017
    Source: Journal of Chemical Ecology
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (321.0 KB)


    Woodwasps in Sirex and related genera are well-represented in North American conifer forests, but the chemical ecology of native woodwasps is limited to a few studies demonstrating their attraction to volatile host tree compounds, primarily monoterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene alcohols. Thus, we systematically investigated woodwasp-host chemical interactions in California’s Sierra Nevada and West Virginia’s Allegheny Mountains. We first tested common conifer monoterpene hydrocarbons and found that (−)-α-pinene, (+)-3-carene, and (−)-β-pinene were the three most attractive compounds. Based on these results and those of earlier studies, we further tested three monoterpene hydrocarbons and four monoterpene alcohols along with ethanol in California: monoterpene hydrocarbons caught 72.3% of all woodwasps. Among monoterpene hydrocarbons, (+)-3-carene was the most attractive followed by (−)-β-pinene and (−)-α-pinene. Among alcohols, ethanol was the most attractive, catching 41.4% of woodwasps trapped. Subsequent tests were done with fewer selected compounds, including ethanol, 3-carene, and ethanol plus (−)-α-pinene in both Sierra Nevada and Allegheny Mountains. In both locations, ethanol plus (−)-α-pinene caught more woodwasps than other treatments. We discussed the implications of these results for understanding the chemical ecology of native woodwasps and invasive Sirex noctilio in North America. In California, 749 woodwasps were caught, representing five species: Sirex areolatus Cresson, Sirex behrensii Cresson, Sirex cyaneus Fabricius, Sirex longicauda Middlekauff, and Urocerus californicus Norton. In West Virginia 411 woodwasps were caught representing four species: Sirex edwardsii Brullé, Tremex columba Linnaeus, Sirex nigricornis F., and Urocerus cressoni Norton.

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    Erbilgin, Nadir; Stein, Jack D.; Acciavatti, Robert E.; Gillette, Nancy E.; Mori, Sylvia R.; Bischel, Kristi; Cale, Jonathan A.; Carvalho, Carline R.; Wood, David L. 2017. A blend of ethanol and (−)-α-pinene were highly attractive to native siricid woodwasps (Siricidae, Siricinae) infesting conifers of the Sierra Nevada and the Allegheny Mountains. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 43(2): 172-179.


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    Monoterpenes, Ethanol, Host stress compounds, Sirex areolatus, Sirex behrensii, Sirex edwardsii

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