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    Author(s): Randall S. Rosenberger; Eric M. WhiteJeffrey D. Kline; Claire Cvitanovich
    Date: 2017
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-957. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 33 p.
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.0 MB)


    Natural resource professionals are often tasked with weighing the benefits and costs of changes in ecosystem services associated with land management alternatives and decisions. In many cases, federal regulations even require land managers and planners to account for these values explicitly. Outdoor recreation is a key ecosystem service provided by national forests and grasslands, and one of significant interest to the public. This report presents the most recent update of the Recreation Use Values Database, based on an exhaustive review of economic studies spanning 1958 to 2015 conducted in the United States and Canada, and provides the most up-to-date recreation economic values available. When combined with data pertaining to recreation activities and the quantity of recreation use, the recreation economic values can be used for estimating the economic benefits of outdoor recreation. The recreation economic value estimates provided in this report, whether from past research literature or from values constructed using our meta-analysis benefit function, are average consumer surplus per person per activity day.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Rosenberger, Randall S.; White, Eric M.; Kline, Jeffrey D.; Cvitanovich, Claire. 2017. Recreation economic values for estimating outdoor recreation economic benefits from the National Forest System. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-957. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 33 p.


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    Benefit transfer, economic value, ecosystem services, outdoor recreation, recreation benefits, nonmarket valuation, national forest planning and management, NEPA.

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