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    Author(s): Andrew N. Gray; T.A. Spies
    Date: 1996
    Source: Journal of Ecology, Volume 84, Issue 5 (Oct., 1996), 635-645.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.0 MB)


    Emergence, establishment and growth of Abies amabilis, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla were studied for 2 years in variously sized canopy gaps created in four stands on the west slope of the Cascade Range in central Oregon and southern Washington, USA. Seedlings originating from seeds sown on controlled microsites were compared with natural seed rain.

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    Gray, A.N.; Spies, T.A. 1996. Gap size, within-gap position, and canopy structure effects on conifer seedling establishment. Journal of Ecology. 84: 635-645.


    Disturbance, natural regeneration, old-growth forest, succession.

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