Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Undulations in weather patterns have caused climate shifts of increased frequency and duration around the world. The need for additional research and model data on this pressing problem has resulted in a plethora of research groups examining a particular tree species or biome for negative effects of climate change. This review aims to (1) collect and merge recent research data on regeneration within old- and new-growth forests, (2) highlight and expand upon selected topics for additional discussion, and (3) report how shade tolerance, drought tolerance, and inherent plasticity affect tree growth and development. Although shade and drought tolerance have been well studied by a number of research groups, this review reveals that in-depth analysis of a single or a few species in a given area will not generate the data required to implement a successful regeneration plan. Studies using historical accounts of previous species composition, information regarding site seasonality, species competition, and individual responses to drought and shade are needed to (1) develop best management plans and (2) ensure future modeling experiments are focused on a greater variety of species using more innovative methods to evaluate climate change effects.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    ​Lawson, Shaneka S.; Michler, Charles H. 2014. Afforestation, restoration and regeneration — Not all trees are created equal. Journal of Forestry Research. 25(1): 3-20.


    Google Scholar


    climate change, shade tolerance, drought tolerance, canopy gaps, invasive species

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page