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    Author(s): Pouria Bahmani; John van de Lindt; Asif Iqbal; Douglas Rammer
    Date: 2017
    Source: Buildings. 7(2): 1-22.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: Download Publication  (4.0 MB)


    Soft-story wood-frame buildings have been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem for decades. There are tens of thousands of these multi-family three- and four-story structures throughout California and the United States. The majority were constructed between 1920 and 1970, with many being prevalent in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The NEES Soft project was a five-university multi-industry effort that culminated in a series of full-scale soft-story wood-frame building tests to validate retrofit philosophies proposed by (1) the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) P-807 guidelines and (2) a performance-based seismic retrofit (PBSR) approach developed within the project. Four different retrofit designs were developed and validated at full-scale, each with specified performance objectives, which were typically not the same. This paper focuses on the retrofit design using cross-laminated timber (CLT) rocking panels and presents the experimental results of the full-scale shake table test of a four-story 370 m2 (4000 ft2) soft-story test building with that FEMA P-807 focused retrofit in place. The building was subjected to the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1992 Cape Mendocino ground motions scaled to 5% damped spectral accelerations ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 g.

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    Bahmani, Pouria; van de Lindt, John; Iqbal, Asif; Rammer, Douglas. 2017. Mass timber rocking panel retrofit of a four-story soft-story building with full-scale shake table validation. Buildings. 7(2): 1-22.


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    Cross laminated timber (CLT), performance‐based seismic retrofit (PBSR), FEMA P‐807, soft‐story, wood‐frame, shake table testing, seismic retrofit

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