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    Understanding the environmental, economic, and social/community benefits of nature, in particular trees and forests, can lead to better vegetation management and designs to optimize environmental quality and human health for current and future generations. Computer models have been developed to assess forest composition and its associated effects on environmental quality and human health. While research is still needed regarding many of the environmental services that trees provide, resource managers can utilize existing models to better understand the role of vegetation in improving human health and environmental quality, lower costs of maintenance, and increase resource stewardship as an effective means to provide substantial economic savings to society.

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    Nowak, David J. 2017. Assessing the benefits and economic values of trees. In: Ferrini, Francesco; van den Bosch, Cecil C.K.; Fini, Alessio, eds. Routledge handbook of urban forestry. New York, NY: Routledge: 152-163. Chapter 11.

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