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    Author(s): Linda M. Haugen; Garrett L. Beier; Susan E. Bentz; Raymond P. Guries; James M. Slavicek
    Date: 2017
    Source: In: Pinchot, Cornelia C.; Knight, Kathleen S.; Haugen, Linda M.; Flower, Charles E.; Slavicek, James M., eds. Proceedings of the American elm restoration workshop 2016; 2016 October 25-27; Lewis Center, OH. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-174. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 37-42.
    Publication Series: Paper (invited, offered, keynote)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (106.0 KB)

    Description

    A variety of methods have been used by different research groups to "challenge" inoculate American elms (Ulmus americana) with the purpose of determining whether some clones may be resistant to the Dutch elm disease fungus. The methods used by seven research groups are described, along with observations on complications and benefits associated with each. The response of test trees to challenge is affected by many factors, including the age of parent material, size/maturity of test material, vigor of the plant being inoculated, portion of the plant inoculated, season/time of year, source of inoculum, amount of inoculum, and method of delivery. The testing goal must be kept in mind when choosing methods, and the details of what methods were used must be described when reporting results. Inclusion of susceptible and resistant controls is critically important, as it allows calibration of response between different studies.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Haugen, Linda M.; Beier, Garrett L.; Bentz, Susan E.; Guries, Raymond P.; Slavicek, James M. 2017. Challenge inoculations to test for Dutch elm disease tolerance: a summary of methods used by various researchers. In: Pinchot, Cornelia C.; Knight, Kathleen S.; Haugen, Linda M.; Flower, Charles E.; Slavicek, James M., eds. Proceedings of the American elm restoration workshop 2016; 2016 October 25-27; Lewis Center, OH. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-174. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 37-42.

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/54941