Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub

    Description

    Forest ecosystem processes depend on local interactions that are modified by the spatial pattern of trees and resources. Effects of resource supplies on processes such as regeneration are increasingly well understood, yet we have few tools to compare resource heterogeneity among forests that differ in structural complexity. We used a neighborhood approach to examine understory light and nutrient availability in a well-replicated and largescale variable-retention harvesting experiment in a red pine forest in Minnesota, USA. The experiment included an unharvested control and three harvesting treatments with similar tree abundance but different patterns of retention (evenly dispersed as well as aggregated retention achieved by cutting 0.1- or 0.3-ha gaps). We measured light and soil nutrients across all treatments and mapped trees around each sample point to develop an index of neighborhood effects (NI). Field data and simulation modeling were used to test hypotheses that the mean and heterogeneity of resource availability would increase with patchiness because of greater variation in competitive environments. Our treatments dramatically altered the types and abundances of competitive neighborhoods (NI) in each stand and resulted in significantly nonlinear relationships of light, nitrogen and phosphorus availability to NI. Hence, the distribution of neighborhoods in each treatment had a significant impact on resource availability and heterogeneity. In dense control stands, neighborhood variation had little impact on resource availability, whereas in more open stands (retention treatments), it had large effects on light and modest effects on soil nutrients. Our results demonstrate that tree spatial pattern can affect resource availability and heterogeneity in explainable and predictable ways, and that neighborhood models provide a useful tool for scaling heterogeneity from the individual tree to the stand. These insights are needed to anticipate the outcomes of silvicultural manipulations and should become more holistically integrated into both basic ecological and management science.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Boyden, Suzanne; Montgomery, Rebecca; Reich, Peter B.; Palik, Brian J. 2012. Seeing the forest for the homogeneous trees: stand-scale resource distributions emerge from tree-scale structure. Ecological Applications. 22(5): 1578–1588.

    Keywords

    aggregate retention silviculture, competition, dispersal patterns, forest structure, gap size, heterogeneity, light, likelihood modeling, neighborhood index, nutrients, Pinus resinosa, variable-retention harvesting

    Related Search


    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page
https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/54980