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    Tropical forests play a critical role in the Earth system; however, tropical landscapes have changed greatly in recent decades because of increasing demand for land to support agriculture and timber production, fuel wood, and other pressures of population and human economics. The observable results are a legacy of persistent deforestation, forest degradation, increased wildfires and loss of biodiversity, allied with losses of original forest lands and high CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. Besides these long-standing human pressures, tropical regions now have unprecedented vulnerability to climate change.

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    Birdsey, Richard; Pan, Yude; Houghton, Richard. 2013. Sustainable landscapes in a world of change: tropical forests, land use and implementation of REDD+: Part I. Carbon Management. 4(5): 465-468.


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    carbon sinks, deforestation, forest degradation, monitoring, tropical forests

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