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    Author(s): Kathryn A. Lynch; Rebecca J. McLain
    Date: 2003
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-585. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 61 p
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.98 MB)


    This report compares the changes that took place between 1994 and 2002 in the nontimber forest product (NTFP) management regime that governed access to floral greens and other NTFPs in western coastal Washington. A rapid rural appraisal approach was used to gather data from 24 NTFP stakeholders during phase I (1994) and from 37 NTFP stakeholders during phase II (2002). Phase I findings summarized the rules of access to NTFPs on private, state, tribal, and federal lands in 1994, as well as comparing the perspectives of land managers to those of pickers and buyers regarding the need for and the impacts of those rules. A preliminary diagram of NTFP knowledge exchange networks was developed from information provided by informants who participated in the 1994 study. This diagram suggested that in 1994, buyers and land managers functioned as key information exchange nodes in NTFP networks at the study site.

    Phase II findings indicated that the formalization of NTFP access process still nascent in 1994 had solidified sufficiently by 2002 that many pickers and buyers had come to take the permit requirements for granted. However, NTFP stakeholders noted that leases were increasingly difficult to acquire. It appears that a few larger floral greens companies based on the southeastern Olympic Peninsula now control most floral greens leases on private and state lands. By 2002, the floral greens labor market was dominated by Latinos, many of whom lacked legal work documents and thus occupied a precarious position in the labor market. To counteract the power of the larger buying companies, some of the smaller buying companies and harvesters have worked with social justice organizations to pressure the Washington State Department of Labor to enforce regulations regarding employer-contractor relations.

    The study has several key implications for forest managers, including the need for managers and policymakers to recognize the heterogeneity of the harvester and buyer populations and to consider the possibility that interventions in domains seemingly unrelated to forest management, such as labor policy, might constitute key elements of a sustainable forest management strategy. The report ends with a list of steps managers and researchers can take to support sustainable floral greens management.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Lynch, Kathryn A.; McLain, Rebecca J. 2003. Access, labor, and wild floral greens management in western Washington''s forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-585. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 61 p


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    Nontimber forest products, forest policy, labor policy, resource tenure, sustainability, floral greens, salal, Olympic Peninsula

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