Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Kristin Floress; Mary Beth Kolozsvary; Jean Mangun
    Date: 2017
    Source: JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (237.0 KB)


    In this article, we describe how protecting vernal pools was discussed by experts in the northeastern United States (U.S) within the context of a theoretical policy framework. We offer insight about characteristics of feasible vernal pool policy solutions, and identify gaps in our understanding, particularly regarding conditions in states currently lacking specific vernal pool protections. Vernal pools are geographically isolated, intermittent wetlands that provide important habitat for a variety of plants and animals. Many may not be federally protected as a result of judicial decisions over the past two decades, and the rule intended to clarify what qualifies for federal protection is currently being reviewed by the courts. Thus, state or local policy approaches may be alternatives to conserving vernal pools. We interviewed vernal pool experts in the northeastern U.S. regarding approaches to vernal pool protection and analyzed their perceptions through the lens of Kingdon's (2011) multiple streams policy development framework. The framework denotes 13 characteristics of three processes associated with policy development: problem identification, policy solution development, and the impacts of politics. While analyzed for all 13 components, we found participants most often discussed feasibility of policy formulation and implementation, particularly with regard to protecting vernal pools of high value while also remaining within the bounds of what public opinion supports.

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Floress, Kristin; Kolozsvary, Mary Beth; Mangun, Jean. 2017. Expert Perceptions of Approaches to Protecting Isolated Wetlands in the Northeastern United States. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 53(5): 1048-1061.


    Google Scholar


    environmental regulations, Rapanos, seasonal wetlands, SWANCC, water policy, interviews, Clean Water Rule, multiple streams framework

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page