Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Brad Valentine; Tracy Nelson; Clare Golec; Tony LaBanca; Stacey Martinelli
    Date: 2017
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-258. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 295-305
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Southwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (378.0 KB)


    A perennial herb of the Campanulaceae (bellflower) family, swamp harebell (Campanula californica) is endemic to the north and central coast of California. The California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) considers the species to be moderately threatened, and is concerned with the severity of impacts from land use activities, and the effectiveness of mitigation measures proposed under California Environmental Quality Act compliance. A timber harvesting plan (THP) submitted during 2000 reported the species distributed in several clusters in the proposed Sonoma County logging area. During review, CDFW and the landowner agreed to evaluate the impacts of some standard timber harvest practices. Following a repeated-measures design with sampling the year prior to harvest and post-harvest years 1, 3, and 5, we enumerated swamp harebell plants in five 30 cm x 30 cm subplots systematically placed within twenty 3 m x 1 m cover-class quadrants. We situated the cover-class quadrants to assess four immediate on-site impacts: road reopening/hauling, timber falling and skidding, reducing canopy, and minimal direct impact. The number of plants on roadways declined substantially in the first year post harvest, and remained low in subsequent years. Likewise, the number of plants declined between pre-harvest and post-harvest year 1 where trees were felled and skidded, but some recovery was apparent by the final year. Reduced canopy plots did not show substantive response attributable to harvest. Of the un-impacted sites, one declined continually and substantially (to 2 percent of its original count) over study period, while the others also generally declined. Drought conditions during the monitoring period likely impacted swamp harebell numbers more than many impacts of timber harvest, other than those resulting from road construction and use.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Valentine, Brad; Nelson, Tracy; Golec, Clare; LaBanca, Tony; Martinelli, Stacey. 2017. The response of swamp harebell (Campanula californica) to timber harvest: a case study. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Valachovic, Yana, tech cords. Coast redwood science symposium—2016: Past successes and future direction. Proceedings of a workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-258. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 295-305.


    Campanula californica, drought, roads, swamp harebell, timber harvest impacts

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page