Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Seth Ex; Frederick Smith; Tara Keyser; Stephanie Rebain
    Date: 2017
    Source: In:e-General Technical Report SRS-224. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
    Publication Series: Proceedings - Paper (PR-P)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (362.0 KB)


    The Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE-FVS) is often used to estimate canopy bulk density (CBD) and canopy base height (CBH), which are key indicators of crown fire hazard for conifer stands in the Western United States. Estimated CBD from FFE-FVS is calculated as the maximum 4 m running mean bulk density of predefined 0.3 m thick canopy layers (Sando and Wick 1972). Canopy base height is estimated in a similar fashion as the lowest height at which the running mean bulk density of canopy layers exceeds a predefined threshold of 0.011 kg m-3 (Scott and Reinhardt 2001). Because estimates of CBD and CBH from FFE-FVS are derived from estimates of the bulk density of canopy layers, their values depend both on the biomass of canopy fuel and on the manner in which fuel is distributed vertically within the crowns of trees that make up the canopy (Keyser and Smith 2010).

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Ex, Seth; Smith, Frederick (Skip); Keyser, Tara; Rebain, Stephanie. 2017. Estimating canopy bulk density and canopy base height for conifer stands in teh interior western United States using the forest vegetation simulator fire and fuels extension. Keyser, Chad; Keyser Tara L., eds. 2017. Proceedings of the 2017 Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) e-conference. e-Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-224. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 200 p.

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page