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    Urban and peri-urban forests produce numerous benefits for society. These include moderating the climate; reducing energy use in buildings; sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide; improving air and water quality; mitigating rainfall run-off and flooding; providing an aesthetic environment and recreational opportunities; enhancing human health and social well-being; and lowering noise impacts (Dwyer et al., 1992; Nowak and Dwyer, 2007; Dobbs, Martinez-Harms and Kendal, 2017). Inappropriate landscape design, tree selection and tree maintenance, however, can increase environmental costs (e.g. through pollen production and chemical emissions that contribute to air pollution), energy use in buildings, waste disposal, infrastructure repair, and water consumption. These potential costs must be weighed against the benefits when developing natural resource management programmes.

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    Nowak, D.J. 2018. Improving city forests through assessment, modelling and monitoring. Unasylva. 69(1): 30-36.

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