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    Author(s): Theresa B. JainRussell T. Graham; Penelope Morgan
    Date: 2002
    Source: Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 32(7): 1109-1125.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (279.0 KB)


    Many studies have assessed tree development beneath canopies in forest ecosystems, but results are seldom placed within the context of broad-scale biophysical factors. Mapped landscape characteristics for three watersheds, located within the Coeur d’Alene River basin in northern Idaho, were integrated to create a spatial hierarchy reflecting biophysical factors that influence western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) development under a range of canopy openings. The hierarchy included canopy opening, landtype, geological feature, and weathering. Interactions and individual-scale contributions were identified using stepwise log-linear regression. The resulting models explained 68% of the variation for estimating western white pine basal diameter and 64% for estimating height. Interactions among spatial scales explained up to 13% of this variation and better described vegetation response than any single spatial scale. A hierarchical approach based on biophysical attributes is an excellent method for studying plant and environment interactions.

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    Jain, Theresa B.; Graham, Russell T.; Morgan, Penelope. 2002. Western white pine development in relation to biophysical characteristics across different spatial scales in the Coeur d'Alene River basin in northern Idaho, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 32(7): 1109-1125.


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    western white pine, Pinus monticola, canopy openings, spatial scale

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