Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Cedarwood oil (CWO) has a wide range of bioactivities, including insect repellency and toxicity, as well as conferring resistance against termites and wood-decay fungi. In previous work examining pressure treatment of wood, ethanol was used as the diluent/carrier for CWO. However, it is preferable to use a water-based carrier for environmental, safety and cost considerations. In this research, we describe the use of a hexadecyl ammonium chloride amylose inclusion complex/polyvinyl alcohol (AIC/PVOH) as an emulsifier for CWO to pressure treat wood. Wood samples were subsequently tested for resistance to termites and four species of wood-decay fungi. Wood was also compared for water absorption and swelling. In the termite test, the lowest wood mass losses were for the AIC/PVOH/CWO (5.4%) and EtOH/CWO (5.4%) treatments, which also had the highest termite mortalities (i.e., 100% and 97.6%, respectively). In general, for wood-decay fungi, wood mass losses were lowest for the EtOH/CWO and AIC/PVOH/CWO treatments and were highest for the Water, EtOH, and AIC/PVOH treatments. Wood blocks treated with AIC/PVOH repelled water as evidenced by higher contact angle, lower mass gain (both by submersion and water saturation) and lower swelling. The results indicated that the amylose inclusion complex makes an excellent emulsifier and the AIC/PVOH/CWO mixture inhibits both termites and wood-decay fungi. The amylose inclusion complex alone was as inhibitory as CWO against termites and also inhibits both water absorption and swelling in treated wood.

    Publication Notes

    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Eller, F.J.; Hay, W.T.; Kirker, G.T.; Mankowski, M.E.; Sellling, G.W. 2018. Hexadecyl ammonium chloride amylose inclusion complex to emulsify cedarwood oil and treat wood against termites and wood-decay fungi. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 129: 95-101.


    Google Scholar


    Juniperus virginiana, amylose inclusion complex, wood preservation, subterranean termite, wood-decay fungi, water resistance

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page