Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Rose A. Graves; Scott M. Pearson; Monica G. Turner
    Date: 2017
    Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (754.0 KB)


    Sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem services are common conservation goals. However, understanding relationships between biodiversity and cultural ecosystem services (CES) and determining the best indicators to represent CES remain crucial challenges. We combined ecological and social data to compare CES value of wildflower communities based on observed species richness versus revealed social preferences. Using a discrete-choice experiment with images of wildflower communities, we analyzed which aspects of biodiversity were associated with the aesthetic preferences of forest visitors. Although commonly used to indicate biodiversity-based CES, species richness did not predict aesthetic preference. This study suggests that successful management of CES requires understanding stakeholders’ preferences to determine conservation priorities

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Graves, Rose A.; Pearson, Scott M.; Turner, Monica G. 2017.Species richness alone does not predict cultural ecosystem service value. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114(14): 3774-3779.  6 p.


    Google Scholar


    Discrete choice, aesthetics, biodiversity, wildflowers, amenity-based landscape

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page